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Glossary of Marketing, Advertising, Internet, and Promotion Terms
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ABC – Audit Bureau of Circulation, an organization supported by publishers,

advertisers, and their agencies to certify circulation statements of magazines and newspapers. .

absolute costs – The actual total cost of placing an ad in particular media vehicle.

access period – Television time period (7:30-8:00pm ETZ) returned to the local stations by the networks under a 1970 FCC ruling.

account executive – The individual who serves as the liaison between the advertising agency and the client. The account executive is responsible for managing all of the services the agency provides to the client and representing the agency’s point of view to the client.

“A” county – A definition used by the A. C. Nielsen Company to describe any county belonging to the 25 largest cities and consolidated urban areas in the U.S.

action oriented – A television programming type designed to attract younger male audiences.  Police and adventure stories, such as Adam 12 or Hawaii 5-0, are examples of the genre.

ad-a-card – A perforated, tear-off coupon attached to ads in Sunday comics and supplements.

adjacencies – Commercial spots purchased from local television stations that generally appear during the time periods adjacent to network programs.

adjacency – An announcement between two programs.

ADI – Area of Dominant Influences, ARB’s definition of the exclusive geographic area consisting of all counties in which the Home Market Stations receive a preponderance of total viewing hours. Equivalent in concept (though not necessarily in county roster) to Nielsen’s Designated Market Area.

advertising – Any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor.

advertising agency – A firm that specializes in the creation, production, and placement of advertising messages and may provide other services that facilitate the marketing communications process.

advertising appeal – The basis or approach used in an advertising message to attract the attention or interest of consumers and/or influence their feelings toward the product, service, or cause.

advertising campaign – A comprehensive advertising plan that consists of a series of messages in a variety of media that center on a single theme or idea.

advertising creativity – The ability to generate fresh, unique, and appropriate ideas that can be used as solutions to communication problems.

advertising manager – The individual in an organization who is responsible for the planning, coordinating, budgeting, and implementing of the advertising program.

advertising specialties – Items used as giveaways to serve as a reminder or stimulate remembrance of a company or brand such as calendars, T-shirts, pens, key tags, and the like. Specialties are usually imprinted with a company or brand name and other identifying marks such as an address and phone number.

advertising substantiation – A Federal Trade Commission regulatory program that requires advertisers to have documentation to support the claims made in their advertisements.

advertising weight – The level of advertising support for a brand, expressed in terms of Gross Impressions, GRP’s, or number of spots or insertions.

advocacy advertising – Advertising that is concerned with the propagation of ideas and elucidation of social issues of public importance in a manner that supports the position and interest of the sponsor.

aerial advertising – A form of outdoor advertising where messages appear in the sky in the form of banners pulled by airplanes, skywriting, and on blimps.

affective referral decision rule – A type of decision rule where selections are made on the basis of an overall impression or affective summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration.

affidavit – Notarized record of commercial announcements aired by a station, listing broadcast date and time.

affiliates – Local television stations that are associated with a major network. Affiliates agree to preempt time during specified hours for programming provided by the network and carry the advertising contained in the program.

affirmative disclosure – A Federal Trade Commission program whereby advertisers may be required to include certain types of information in their advertisements so consumers will be aware of all the consequences, conditions, and limitations associated with the use of the product or service.

affordable method – A method of determining the budget for advertising and promotion where all other budget areas are covered and remaining monies are available for allocation.

agate line – The basic unit of newspaper space equal to one column in width and 1/14 inch in height (i.e., agate lines per inch).

agency evaluation process – The process by which a company evaluates the performance of its advertising agency. This process includes both financial and qualitative aspects.

AIDA model – A model that depicts the successive stages a buyer passes through in the personal selling process including: attention, interest, desire, and action.

all-family-programming – Generally refers to early fringe programs intended to attract all demographic groups, including children.  Partridge Family and Andy Griffith are examples of All-Family programs.

alpha activity – A measure of the degree of brain activity that can be used to assess an individual’s reactions to an advertisement.

alternative media – A term commonly used in advertising to describe support media.

AM – Amplitude Modulation is the variation of the intensity of electromagnetic waves to transmit audio patterns.  The AM radio band lies between 540 and 1600 kilocycles.

animatic – A preliminary version of a commercial whereby a videotape of the frames of a storyboard is produced along with an audio soundtrack.

ARB – Arbitron, (formerly, American Research Bureau) a rating service using a daily diary to measure the audience size and composition of local television and radio stations.

arbitrary allocation – A method for determining the budget for advertising and promotion based on arbitrary decisions of executive.

area of dominant influence (ADI) – A geographical survey area created and defined by Arbitron. Each county in the nation is assigned to an ADI, which is an exclusive geographic area consisting of all counties in which the home market stations receive a preponderance of viewing.

attitude toward the ad – A message recipient’s affective feelings of favorability or unfavorability toward an advertisement.

attractiveness – A source characteristic that makes him or her appealing to a message recipient.  Source attractiveness can be based on similarity, familiarity, or likability.

audience – The number of people or household viewing, listening to or reading a particular medium.

audience accumulation – The process by which the total audience to a given flight or campaign builds over time.  Accumulated, or “CUME”, audience is the sum total of different individuals exposed one or more times to an advertisement.

audience composition – The demographic makeup of a medium.

audimeter – An electric measurement device that is hooked to a television set to record when the set is turned on and the channel to which it is tuned.

audiotex – The use of the telephone and voice information services to market, advertise, promote, entertain, and inform consumers.

availability – A specific time period offered for sale by a station or network.

average frequency – The number of times the average household reached by a media schedule is exposed to a media vehicle over a specified period.

average quarter-hour figure (AQH) – The average number of persons listening to a particular station for at least five minutes during a 15-minute period.  Used by Arbitron in measuring the size of radio audiences.

average quarter-hour rating – The average quarter-hour figure estimate expressed as a percentage of the population being measured.  Used by Arbitron in measuring the size of radio audiences.

average quarter-hour share – The percentage of the total listening audience tuned to each station as a percentage of the total listening audience in the survey area. Used by Arbitron in measuring the size of radio audiences.


baby boomers – The generation of Americans born between 1946 and 1964.

back of book – The section of a magazine following the main editorial section.

balance-of-trade deficit – A situation where the monetary value of country’s imports exceeds its exports.

BAR – Broadcasting Advertiser Reports, an organization that monitors and reports on network and selected spot TV and network radio commercial activity. The information is useful in determining competitive spending and scheduling patterns.

barrier to entry – Conditions that make it difficult for a firm to enter the market in a particular industry, such as high advertising budgets.

barter – Exchange of advertising time and/or product mentions for merchandise supplied by the advertiser.

barter syndication – The offering of television programs to local stations free or at a reduced rate but with some of the advertising time presold to national advertisers. The remaining advertising time can be sold to local advertisers.

behavioristic segmentation – A method of segmenting a market by dividing customers into groups based on their usage, loyalties, or buying responses to a product or service.

benchmark measures – Measures of a target audience’s status concerning response hierarchy variables such as awareness, knowledge, image, attitude, preferences, intentions, or behavior.  These measures are taken at the beginning of an advertising or promotional campaign to determine the degree to which a target audience must be changed or moved by a promotional campaign.

benefit segmentation – A method of segmenting markets on the basis of the major benefits consumers seek in a product or service.

best food day – Generally Wednesday or Thursday, the day when newspapers devote added space to food related ads and editorial.

Better Business Bureau (BBB) – An organization established and funded by businesses that operates primarily at the local level to monitor activities of companies and promote fair advertising and selling practices.

big idea – A unique or creative idea for an advertisement or campaign that attracts consumer’s attention, gets a reaction, and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart form the competition.

billings – The amount of client money agencies spend on media purchase and other equivalent activities.  Billings are often as a way of measuring the size of advertising agencies.

billboard – An announcement (usually five seconds in length) identifying an advertiser at the beginning, end, or breaks of a broadcast. Also, an outdoor advertising display.

bleed – An advertisement in which all or part of the graphic material runs to the margins of the page. A premium of 15% over the basic rate is usually charged.

body copy – The main text portion of a print ad.  Also often referred to as copy.

bonus packs – Special packaging that provides consumers with extra quantity of merchandise at no extra charge over the regular price.

bonus spot – A free announcement added to a schedule, most often to compensate for scheduling problems or to increase total volume of a package.

bounce back coupon – A coupon offer made to consumers as an inducement to repurchase the brand.

brand development index (BDI) – An index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a brand’s total sales that occur in a given market as compared to the percentage of the total population in the market.

brand extension strategy – The strategy of applying an existing brand name to a new product.

brand loyalty – Preference by a consumer for a particular brand that results in continual purchase of it.

brand manager – The individual in an organization responsible for planning, implementing, and controlling the marketing program for a particular brand.  Brand managers are sometimes referred to as product managers.

broadcast media – Media that use the airwaves to transmit their signal and programming.  Radio and television are examples of broadcasting media.

build-up approach – A method of determining the budget for advertising and promotion by determining the specific tasks that have to performed and estimating the costs of performing them. 

Burke test – A method of posttesting television commercials using a day-after recall test (now known as ASI Recall Plus Test)

business-to-business advertising – Advertising used by one business to promote the products and/or services it sells to another business.

buyer – Agent who purchases media time for an advertiser.

buying center – A committee or group of individuals in an organization who are responsible for evaluating products and services and making purchase decisions.

buying service – An organization specializing in the purchase of advertising time and space.

cable television – A form of television where signals are carried to households by wire rather than through the airways.


“C” county – An A.C. Nielsen definition for any county, other than an “A” or “B” county, that has more than 35 thousand inhabitants or is in metropolitan area with more than 35 thousand inhabitants.

campaign – The entire advertising effort conducted within a predetermined time frame, usually with one set of advertising objectives.

cancellation date – The final date for deleting ordered media activity.

carryover effect – A delayed or lagged effect whereby the impact of advertising on sales can occur during a subsequent time period.

cash discount – A discount allowed by print media, usually 2% of the net, to encourage prompt payment (e.g., within 10 days)

category development index (CDI) – An index that is calculated by taking the percentage of a product category’s total sales that occur in a given market areas as compared to the percentage of the total population in the market.

category extension – The strategy of applying an existing brand name to a new product category.

category management – An organizational system whereby managers have responsibility for the marketing programs for a particular category or line of products.

CATV – Community Antenna TV, now simply Cable Television.  Signals are delivered by coaxial cable wiring, usually improving the quality of reception and increasing programming possibilities via expansion of receiving channels.

cease and desist order – An action by the Federal Trade Commission that orders a company to stop engaging in a practice that is consisted deceptive or misleading until a hearing is held.

center spread – The two facing pages at the center of a magazine, desirable because the pages are continuous with little or no interruption at the gutter.

central route to persuasion – On of the two routes to persuasion recognized by the elaboration likelihood model.  The central route to persuasion views a message recipient as very active and involves in the communications process and as having the ability and motivation to attend to and process a message.

centralized organizational structure – A method of organizing for international advertising and promotion whereby all decisions are made in a company’s home office.

centralized system – An organizational system whereby advertising along with other marketing activities such as sales, marketing research, and planning are divided along functional lines and run from one central marketing department.

channel – The method or medium by which communication travels from a source or sender to a receiver.

circulation – The average number of copies of newspapers and magazines distributed per issue, including both subscription and single-sale (often newsstand) copies.

city zone – A category used for newspaper circulation figures that refers to a market areas composed of the city where paper is published and contiguous areas similar in character to the city.

classical conditioning – A learning process whereby a conditioned stimulus that elicits a response is paired with a neutral stimulus that does not elicit any particular response. Through repeated exposure, the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the same response as the conditioned stimulus.

classified advertising – Advertising that runs in newspapers and magazines that generally contains text only and is arranged under subheading according to the product, service, or offering. Employment, real estate, and automotive ads are the major forms of classified advertising.

clearance – To obtain a period of time in order to broadcast a program on a local station.  Also refers to the ability of a station to air a schedule as ordered.

clients – The organizations with the products, services, or causes to be marketed and for which advertising agencies and other marketing promotional firms provide services.

clipping service – A service which clips competitors advertising from local print media allowing the company to monitor the types of advertising they are running or to estimate their advertising expenditures.

close – Obtaining the commitment of the prospect in a personal selling transaction.

closing date – The final date for contracting to run an ad in a newspaper or magazine.

clutter – High levels of advertising activity, particularly in terms of number of advertising units, so that any given ad or commercial tends to be lost in the crowded commercial environment.

cognitive dissonance – A state of psychological tension or postpurchase doubt that a consumer may experience after making a purchase decision. This tension often leads the consumer to try to reduce it by seeking supportive information.

cognitive processing – The process by which an individual transforms external information into meanings or patterns of thought and how these meanings are used to form judgments or choices about behavior.

cognitive responses – Thoughts that occur to a message recipient whole reading, viewing, and/or hearing a communication.

collateral services – Companies that provide companies with specialized services such as package design, advertising production, and marketing research.

combination rates – A special rate or discount offered for advertising in two or more periodicals.  Combination rates are often offered by publishers who own both morning and evening editions of a newspaper in the same market.

commission system – A method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the agency receives a specified commission (traditionally 15 percent) from the media on any advertising time or space it purchases.

communication – Th passing of information, exchange of ideas, or process of establishing shared meaning between a sender and a receiver.

communication objectives – Goals that an organization seeks to achieve through its promotional program in terms of communication effects such as creating awareness, knowledge, images, attitudes, preferences, or purchase intentions.

communication task – Under the DAGMAR approach to setting advertising goals and objectives, something that can be performed by and attributed to advertising such as awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action.

comparative advertising – The practice of either directly or indirectly naming one or more competitors in an advertising message and usually making a comparison on one or more specific attributes or characteristics.

compensatory decision rule – A type of decision rule for evaluating alternatives where consumers consider each brand with respect to how it performs on relevant or salient attributes and the importance of each attribute.  This decision rule allows for a negative evaluation or performance on a particular attribute to be compensated for by a positive evaluation on another attribute.

competition-oriented pricing – A strategy whereby prices are set based on what a firm’s competitors are charging competitive advantage. Something unique or special that a firm does or possesses that provides and advantage over its competitors.

competitive check – Analysis of rival advertising levels and patterns, usually conducted on the basis of syndicated data supplied by monitoring organizations (BAR, LNA).

competitive parity method – A method of setting the advertising and promotion budget based on matching the absolute level of percentage of sales expenditures of the competition.

compliance – A type of influence process where a receiver accepts the position advocated by a source to obtain favorable outcomes or to avoid punishment.

computer simulation models – Quantitative-based models that are used to determine the relative contribution of advertising on sales as decreasing.

concave downward function – An advertising/sales response function that views the incremental effects of advertising on sales as decreasing.

confirmation – Agreement from a station that clearance has been made for a specifically ordered schedule.

consumer magazine – A magazine which appeals to a general readership as opposed to a trade readership.

consumer socialization process – The process by which an individual acquires the skills needed to function in the marketplace as a consumer.

contest – A promotion whereby consumers compete for prizes or money on the basis of skills or ability, and winners are determined by judging the entries or ascertaining which entry comes closest to some predetermined criteria.

continuity – A media scheduling strategy where a continuous pattern of advertising is used over the time span of the advertising campaign.

contribution margin – The difference between the total revenue generated by a product or brand and its total variable costs.

controlled circulation basis – Distribution of a publication free to individuals a publisher believes are of importance and responsible for making purchase decisions or are prescreened for qualification on some other basis.

cooperative advertising – Joint advertising run by local and national advertisers. Costs are shared for ads which feature both national product or service and the local distributor.

copy platform – A document that specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy such as the basic problem or issue the advertising must address, the advertising and communication objectives, targeted audience, major selling idea or key benefits to communicate, campaign theme or appeal, and supportive information or requirements.

copywriter – Individual who helps conceive the ideas for ads and commercials and writes the words or copy for them.

corporate advertising – Advertising designed to promote overall awareness of a company or enhance its image among a target audience.

corporate discount – A reduction of advertising costs computed on the basis of total advertising revenue from all the brands of a parent company.

corrective advertising – An action by the Federal Trade Commission whereby an advertiser can be required to run advertising messages designed to remedy the deception or misleading impression created by its previous advertising.

cost efficiency – A measure of media effectiveness based on a comparison of potential or actual audience and the cost for placement, usually expressed as cost-per-thousand households or persons.

cost per customer purchasing – A cost effectiveness measure used in direct marketing based on the cost per sale generated.

cost per order (CPO) – A measure used in direct marketing to determine the number of orders generated relative to the cost of running the advertisement.

cost per point – The cost of purchasing one broadcast rating point. For any given spot announcement, Unit Cost divided by Audience Rating, equals Cost Per Point. Costs per point vary by day-part and market.

cost per ratings point – A computation used by media buyers to compare the cost efficiency of broadcast programs that divides the cost of commercial time on a program by the audience rating.

cost per thousand – A computation used in evaluating the relative cost of various media vehicles that represents the cost of exposing 1,000 members of a target audience to an advertising message.

cost plus system – A method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the agency receives a fee based on the cost of the work it performs plus an agreed on amount for profit.

Council of Better Business Bureaus – The parent office of local offices of the Better Business Bureau. The council assists in the development of codes and standards fir ethical and responsible business and advertising practices.

counter argument – A type of thought or cognitive response a receiver has that is counter or opposed the position advocated in a message.

counter programming – A technique used in broadcasting which presents programs that are designed to appeal to the audience of a competing program run during the same time period.

coverage – A measure of the potential audience that might receive an advertising message through a media vehicle.

CPM – Cost Per Thousand

creative boutique – An advertising agency that specializes in and provides only services related to the creative aspects of advertising.

creative execution style – The manner or way in which a particular advertising appeal is transformed into a message.

creative selling – A type of sales position where the primary emphasis is on generating new business.

creative strategy – A determination of what an advertising message will say or communicate to a target audience.

creative tactics – A determination of how an advertising message will be implemented so as to execute the creative strategy.

creativity – A quality possessed by persons that enables them to generate novel approaches, generally reflected in new and improved solutions to problems.

credibility – The extent to which a source is perceived as having knowledge, skill, or experience relevant to a communication topic and can be trusted to give an unbiased opinion or present objective information on the issue.

credit – A missed spot for which billing is to be adjusted rather than a make-good broadcast.

cross-media advertising – An arrangement where opportunities to advertise in several different types of media are offered by a single company or a partnership of various media providers.

cross/multimagazine deals – An arrangement where two or more publishers offer their magazines to an advertiser as one media package.

cross-ruff coupon – A coupon offer delivered on one product that is redeemable for the purchase of another product.  The other product is usually one made by the same company but may involve a tie in with another manufacturer.

cross sell – A term used in personal selling that refers to the sale of additional products and / or services to the same customer.

CUBE Model – Acronym for Comprehensive Understanding of Business Environments, a model in which values and lifestyles of corporate buying groups are detailed.

culture – The complexity of learned meanings, values, norms, and customs shared by members of a society.

cume – A term used for cumulative audience, which is the estimated total number of different people who listened to a radio station for a minimum of five minutes during a particular daypart.

cut-in – A locally aired television commercial which mechanically replaces a network originated announcement.  The premium cost paid for cut-ins is often justified in copy test situations.

cut-offs – Points in time (usually for late night broadcasts) after which a spot cannot be aired.


“D” County – An A. C. Nielsen definition for any county that is not an “A”, “B”, or “C” county.

DAGMAR – An acronym that stands for defining advertising goals for measured advertising results.  An approach to setting advertising goals and objectives developed by Russell Colley.

daily inch rate – A cost figure used in periodicals based on an advertisement placed one inch deep and one column wide (whatever the column inch).

database – A listing of current and/or potential customers for a company’s product or service that can be uses for direct marketing purposes.

dayparts – The time segments into which a day is divided by radio and television networks and station for selling advertising time.

DB – Delayed Broadcast is the airing of network program in a local market at a time other than its regularly scheduled broadcast.

decentralized organizational structure – A method of organizing for international advertising and promotion where managers in each market or country have decision-making authority.

decentralized system – An organizational system whereby planning and decision-making responsibility for marketing, advertising, and promotion lies with a product/brand manager or management team rather than a centralized department.

deception – According to the Federal Trade Commission, a misrepresentation, omission, or practice that is likely to mislead the consumer acting reasonably in the circumstances to the consumer’s detriment.

decoding – The process by which a message recipient transforms and interprets a message.

defensive spending – Advertising budget allocation strategy in which more weight is given to areas of current sales strength rather than to potential or competitive areas of strength.

demographics – Characteristics of an individual (or a group of individuals) such as age, sex, income, education, and martial status, which are often related to media and consumer behavior patterns.

demographic edition – A special edition of a magazine targeted for a specific demographic group.

demographic segmentation – A method of segmenting a market based on the demographic characteristics of consumers.

departmental system – The organization of an advertising agency into departments based on functions such as account services, creative, media, marketing services, and administration.

derived demand – A situation where demand for a particular product or service results from the need for other goods and/or services.  For example, demand for aluminum cans is derived from consumption of soft drinks or beer.

designated market area (DMA) – The geographic areas used by the Nielsen Station Index in measuring audience size.  DMA’s are nonoverlapping areas consisting of groups of counties from which stations attract their viewers.

differentiated marketing – A type of marketing strategy whereby a firm offers products or services to a number of market segments and develops separate marketing strategies for each.

differentiation – A situation where a particular company or brand is perceived as unique or better than its competitors.

direct-action advertising – Advertising designed to produce and immediate effect such as the generation of store traffic or sales.

direct broadcast by satellite (DBS) – A television signal delivery system whereby programming is beamed from satellites to special receiving dishes mounted on the home or yard.

direct channels – A marketing channel where a producer and ultimate consumer interact directly with one another.

direct headline – A headline that is very straightforward and informative in terms of the message it is presenting and the target audience it is directed toward.  Direct headlines often include a specific benefit, promise, or reason for a consumer to be interested in a product or service.

direct marketing – A system of marketing by which an organization communicates directly with customers to generate a response and/or transaction.

direct-marketing media – Media that are used for direct-marketing purposes including direct mail, telemarketing, print, and broadcast.

direct-response advertising – A method of direct marketing whereby a product or service is promoted through an advertisement that offers the customer the opportunity to purchase directly from the manufacturer.

direct response agencies – Companies that provide a variety of direct marketing services to their clients including database management, direct mail, research, media service, and creative and production capabilities.

direct selling – The direct personal presentation, demonstration, and sale of products and services to consumers usually in their homes or at their jobs.

directional medium – Advertising media that re not used to create awareness or demand for products or services but rather to inform customers as to where purchases can be made once they have decided to buy.  The Yellow Pages are an example of a directional medium.

discrepancy – An unreconciled disagreement involving differences among station logs, contracts, invoices, and the buyers’ records.

display advertising – Advertising in newspapers and magazines that uses illustrations, photos, headlines, and other visual elements in addition to copy text.

dissonance/attribution model – A type of response hierarchy where consumers first behave, then develop attitudes or feelings as a result of that behavior, and then learn or process information that supports the attitude and behavior.

diverting – A practice whereby a retailer or wholesaler takes advantage of a promotional deal and then sells some of the product purchased at the low price to a store outside of their area or to a middleman who will resell it to other stores.

DMA – Designated Market Area, Nielsen’s geographic definition of TV markets by county.

double spotting – In broadcast, running one spot announcement directly after another.

downscale – A word to describe a person’s status at the lower end of the socio-economic scale.

duplication – The exposure of part of one vehicle’s audience to a second vehicle.

duplicated research – Audience members exposed to a message as a result of messages having appeared in two or more different media vehicles.

dyadic communication – A process of direct communication between two persons or groups such as a salesperson and a customer.


earned rate – The actual rate for print space taking into account volume and frequency discount.

economic infrastructure – A country’s communications, transportation, financial, and distribution networks.

economies of scale – A decline in cost with accumulated sales or production.  In advertising, economies of scale often occur in media purchases as the relative costs of advertising time and/or space may decline as the size of the media budget increases.

editorial environment – The standard editorial content, tone and philosophy of a medium.  Can be thought of in terms of being an advantage or disadvantage for advertising effectiveness.

effective reach – A measure of the percentage of a media vehicle’s audience reached at each effect frequency increment.

elaboration likelihood model (ELM) – A model that identifies two process by which communications can lead to persuasion—central and peripheral routes.

electrodermal response – A measure of the resistance the skin offers to a small amount of current passed between two electrodes. Used as a measure of consumers’ reaction level to an advertisement

electroencephalographic (EEG) measures – Measures of the electrical impulses in the brain that are sometimes used as a measure of reactions to advertising.

electronic teleshopping – On-line shopping and information retrieval service that is accessed through a personal computer.

emotional appeals – Advertising messages that appeal to consumers’ feelings and emotions.

encoding – The process of putting thoughts, ideas, or information into a symbolic form.

estimate – A summary of anticipated costs for a proposed purchase.

ethics – Moral principles and values that govern the actions and decisions of an individual or group.

ethnic media – Media which attract population subsegments characterized by shared race or language – black radio, Spanish TV, etc.

evaluative criteria – The dimensions or attributes of a product or service that are used to compare different alternatives.

event sponsorship – A type of promotion whereby a company develops sponsorship relations with a particular event such as a concert, sporting event, or other activity.

evoked set – The various brands identified by a consumer as purchase options and that are actively considered during the alternative evaluation process.

exchange – Trade of something of value between two parties such as a product or service for money.  The core phenomenon or domain for study in marketing.

exclusive – A public relations tactic whereby one particular medium is offered exclusive rights to a story.

expertise – An aspect of source credibility where a communicator is perceived as being knowledgeable in a given area or for a particular topic.

exposure – The perception of an advertisement or a commercial by an individual.

external analysis – The phase of the promotional planning process that focuses on factors such as the characteristics of an organization’s customers, market segments, positioning strategies, competitors, and marketing environment.

external audiences – In public relations, a term used in reference to individuals who are outside of or not closely connected to the organization such as the general public.

external audits – Evaluations performed by outside agencies t determine the effectiveness of an organization’s public relations program.

external search – The search process whereby consumers seek and acquire information from external sources such as advertising, other people, or public sources.

eye tracking – A method for following the movement of a person’s eye’s as he or she views an ad or commercial.  Eye tracking is used for determining which portions or sections of an ad attract a viewer’s attention and/or interest.


failure fee – A trade promotion arrangement whereby a market agrees to pay a penalty fee if a product stocked by a retailer does not meet agreed-upon sales levels.

Fairness Doctrine – A Federal Communications Commission program that required broadcasters to provide time for opposing viewpoints on important issues.

fear appeals – An advertising message that creates anxiety in a receiver by showing negative consequences that can result from engaging in (or not engaging in) a particular behavior.

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) – The federal agency that has the primary responsibility for protecting consumers and business from anticompetitive behavior and unfair and deceptive practices. The FTC regulates advertising and promotion at the federal level.

Federal Trade Commission Act – Federal legislation passed in 1914 that created the Federal Trade Commission and gave it the responsibility to monitor deceptive or misleading advertising and unfair business practices.

fee-commission combination – A type of compensation system whereby an advertising agency establishes a fixed monthly fee for its services to a client and media commissions received by the agency are credited against the fee.

feedback – Part of message recipient’s response that is communicated back to the sender. Feedback can take a variety of forms and provides a sender with a way of monitoring how an intended message is decoded and received.

field of experience – The experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and values that senders and receivers of a message bring to a communication situation.

field tests – Tests of consumer reactions to an advertisement that are taken under natural viewing situations rather than in a laboratory.

financial audit – An aspect of the advertising agency evaluation process that focuses on how the agency conducts financial affairs related to serving a client.

first-run syndication – Programs produced specifically for the syndication market.

fixed-fee arrangement – A method of agency compensation whereby the agency and client agree on the work to be done and the amount of money the agency will be paid for its services.

fixed rate – A premium priced broadcast announcement which is guaranteed as non-pre-emptible.

fixed position – The guaranteed location of an ad in a particular vehicle (e.g., opposite the table of contents).  Also, the guaranteed location of a commercial at a specific time on a specific day.

flat rates – A standard newspaper advertising rate where no discounts are offered for large quantity or repeated space buys.

Flesch formula – A test used to assess the difficulty level of writing based on the number of syllables and sentences per 100 words.

flighting – Scheduling patterns characterized by periods of activity (flights) separated by periods on inactivity.

FM – Frequency Modulation, variation of the oscillation patterns of the electromagnetic signal to transmit audio information.  Generally providing greater fidelity and less interference than AM Radio, the FM band lies between 88.1 and 107.9 megacycles.

focus groups – A qualitative marketing research method whereby a group of 10-12 consumers from the target market are led through a discussion regarding a particular topic such as a product, service, or advertising campaign.

forward buying – A practice whereby retailers and wholesalers stock up on a product being offered by a manufacturer at a lower deal or off-invoice price and resell it to consumers once the marketer’s promotional period has ended.

four color – Black and three colors (Blue, Yellow, Red) which are combined to produce full color print advertising.

franchise position – A specific position in a newspaper or magazine reserved for an advertiser through an agreement with the publication.

free standing insert (Also Free Standing Stuffer) – A pre-printed ad of one or more pages which is inserted unbound into newspapers, especially Sunday editions.

frequency – The number of times a target audience is exposed to a media vehicle(s) in a specified period.

frequency discount – Reduced rates offered for multiple usage of a vehicle.

frequency distribution – A breakdown of the number of times various audience subgroups are exposed to an ad.

fringe time – Television time periods adjacent to primetime in which the bulk of programming is locally originated and where more availability’s exist.  Early Fringe is between 4:00 and 7:30pm, Late Fringe after 11:00pm, ETZ.

FTC – First telecast, first date on which a commercial or program is scheduled for airing.

full-service agency – An advertising agency that offers clients a full range of marketing and communications services including the planning, creating, producing, and placing of advertising messages and other forms of promotion.

functional consequences – Outcomes of product or service usage are tangible and can be directly experienced by a consumer.


game – A promotion that is a form of sweepstakes because it has a chance element or odds of winning associated with it.  Games usually involve game card devices that can be rubbed or opened to unveil a winning number or prize description.

gatefolds – An oversize magazine page or cover that is extended and folded over to fit into the publication. Gatefolds are used to extend the size of a magazine advertisement and are always sold at a premium.

general preplanning input – Information gathering and/or market research studies on trends, developments, and happenings in the marketplace that can be used to assist in the initial stages of the creative process of advertising.

geographical weighting – A media scheduling strategy where certain geographic areas or regions are allocated higher levels of advertising because they have greater sales potential.

geographic segmentation – A method of segmenting a market on the basis of different geographic units or areas.

global advertising – The use of the same basic advertising message in all international markets.

global marketing – A strategy of using a common marketing plan and program for all countries in which a company operates, thus selling the product or services the same way everywhere in the world.

green marketing – The marketing and promotion of products on the basis of environmental sensitivity.

gross impressions – The total number of exposures to an advertisement or commercial.

gross rating points (GRPs) – A measure that represents the total delivery or weight of a media schedule during a specified time period. GRPs are calculated by multiplying the reach of the media schedule by the average frequency.

group system – The organization of an advertising agency by dividing it into groups consisting of specialists from various departments such as creative, media, marketing services, and other areas. These groups work together to service particular accounts.


halo effect –The tendency for evaluations of one attribute or aspect of a stimulus to distort reactions to its other attributes or properties.

headline – Words in the leading position of the advertisement; the words that will be read first or are positioned to draw the most attention.

hemisphere lateralization – The notion that the human brain has two relatively distinct halves or hemispheres with each being responsible for a specific type of function. The right side is responsible for visual processing while the left side conducts verbal processing.

heuristics – Simplified or basic decision rules that can be used by a consumer to make a purchase choice, such as buy the cheapest brand.

hierarchy of effects model – A model of the process by which advertising works that assumes a consumer must pass through a sequence of steps from initial awareness to eventual action. The stages include awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.

hierarchy of needs – Abraham Maslow’s theory that human needs are arranged in an order of hierarchy based on their importance. The need hierarchy includes physiological, safety, social/love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs.

horizontal cooperative advertising – A cooperative advertising arrangement where advertising is sponsored in common by a group of retailers or other organizations providing products or services to a market.

horizontal rotation – The distribution of broadcast spots on different days of the week at the same time of day.

households using television (HUT) – The percentage of homes in a given area that are watching television during a specific time period.

HUT – Homes Using Television-the percentage of television households viewing at a given time.

hypoing – Extra promotional or programming support to increase the audience of a station during the sweep periods when the national rating services are studying the market.


ID – Identification, a 10-second commercial announcement.

identification – The process by which an attractive source influences a message recipient. Identification occurs when the receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and adopt a similar position in terms of beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or behavior.

image advertising – Advertising that creates an identity for a product or service by emphasizing psychological meaning or symbolic association with certain values, lifestyles, and the like.

image transfer – A radio advertising technique whereby the images of a television commercial are implanted into a radio spot.

impression – One exposure (in one household or to one individual) to one advertisement.

Incentive-base system –  A form of compensation whereby an advertising agency’s compensation level depends on how well it meets predetermined performance goals such as sales or market share.

independent – A local station unaffiliated with a national network.

index numbers – A ratio used to describe the potential of a market. The index number is derived by dividing the percentage of users in a market segment by the percentage of population in the same segment and multiplying by 100.

indirect channels – A marketing channel where intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailers are utilized to make a product available to the customer.

indirect headlines – Headlines that are not straightforward with respect to identifying a product or service or providing information regarding the point of an advertising message.

industrial advertising – Advertising targeted at individuals who buy or influence the purchase of industrial goods or other services.

inflight advertising – A variety of advertising media targeting air travelers while they are in flight.

infomercials – Television commercials that are very long, ranging from several minutes to an hour. Infomercials are designed to provide consumers with detailed information about a product or service.

information processing model – A model of advertising effects developed by William McGuire that views the receiver of a message as an information processor and problem solver.  The model views the receiver as passing through a response hierarchy that includes a series of stages including message presentation, attention, comprehension, acceptance or yielding, retention, and behavior.

information/rational appeals – Advertising appeals that focus on the practical , functional, or utilitarian need for a product or service and emphasize features, benefits, or reasons for owning or using the brand.

ingredient sponsored cooperative advertising – Advertising supported by raw material manufacturers with the objective being to help establish end products that include materials and/or ingredients supplied by the company.

inherent drama – An approach to advertising that focuses on the benefits or characteristics that lead a consumer to purchase a product or service and uses dramatic elements to emphasize them.

in-house agency – An advertising agency set up, owned, and operated by an advertiser that is responsible for planning and executing the company’s advertising program.

ink-jet imaging – A printing process where a message is reproduced by projecting ink onto paper rather than mechanical plates.  Ink-jet imaging is being offered by many magazines to allow advertisers to personalize their messages.

innovation-adoption model – A model that represents the stages a consumer passes through in the adoption process for an innovation such as a new product. The series of steps includes: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption.

inquiry test – Tests designed to measure advertising effectiveness on the basis of inquiries or responses generated from the ad such as requests for information, number of phone calls, or number of coupons redeemed at the time of purchase.

in-store media – Advertising and promotional media that are used inside of a retail store such as point-of-purchase displays, ads on shopping carts, coupon dispensers, and display boards.

integrated information response model – A model of the response process or sequence advertising message recipient go through which integrates concepts from the traditional and low-involvement response hierarchy perspectives.

integrated marketing communications – A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines—for example, general advertising, direct response, sales promotion, and public relations—and combines these disciplines to provide clarity, consistency, and maximum communications impact.

integrated marketing communication objectives – Statements of what various aspects of the integrated marketing communications program will accomplish with respect to factors such as communication tasks, sales, market share, and the like.

integrated processes – The way information such as product knowledge, meanings, and beliefs is combined to evaluate two or more alternatives.

interactive media – A variety of media that allows the consumer to interact with the source of the message, actively receiving information and altering images, responding to questions, and so on.

interconnects – Groups of cable systems joined together for advertising purposes.

internal analysis – The phase of the promotional planning process that focuses on the product/service offering and the firm itself including the capabilities of the firm and its ability to develop and implement a successful integrated marketing communications program.

internal audits – Evaluations by individuals within the organization to determine the effectiveness of a public relations program.

internalization – The process by which a credible source influences a message recipient. Internalization occurs when the receiver is motivated to have an objectively correct position on an issue and the receiver will adopt the opinion or attitude of the credible communicator if he or she believes the information from this source represents an accurate position on the issue.

internal search – The process by which a consumer acquires information by accessing past experiences or knowledge stored in memory.

internal media – Advertising media that have multi-country coverage and can be used to reach audiences in various countries.

inventory – Unsold time that a station or network has available for advertisers.

investment spending – Increased advertising expenditures at a rate higher than normal with the expectation of increased sales and profits.


jingles – Songs about a product or service that usually carry the advertising theme and a simple message.


laboratory tests – Tests of consumer reactions to advertising under controlled conditions.

Lanham Act – A federal law that permits a company to register a trademark for its exclusive use. The Lanham Act was recently amended to encompass false advertising and prohibits any false description or representation including words or other symbols tending falsely to describe or represent the same.

layout – The physical arrangement of the various parts of an advertisement including the headline, subheads, illustrations, body copy, and any identifying marks.

lexicographic decision rule – A type of decision rule where choice criteria are ranked in order of importance and alternatives are evaluated on each attribute or criterion beginning with the most important one.

line extension – The strategy of applying an existing brand name to another product in the same category.

line rate – Cost per agate line, the basic unit used to compute the cost for newspaper space.

listening area – Total extent of a radio station’s signal.

LNA – Leading National Advertisers, a syndicated source which analyzes advertising activity for major advertisers in six media—Network TV, Spot TV, Network Radio, Magazines, Newspaper Supplements and Outdoor.

local advertising – Advertising done by companies within the limited geographic area where they do business.

localized advertising strategy – Developing and advertising campaign specifically for a particular country or market rather than using a global approach.

low involvement hierarchy – A response hierarchy whereby a message recipient is viewed as passing from cognition to behavior to attitude change.

LTC – Last telecast, the last date on which a commercial or program is scheduled for airing.


macroeconomic conditions – Factors that influence the state of the overall economy such as changes in gross national product, interest rates, inflation, recession, and employment levels.

macro environment – Uncontrollable factors that constitute the external environment of marketing including demographic, economic, technological, natural, sociocultural, and regulatory forces.

magazine networks – A group of magazine owned by one publisher or assembled by an independent network that offers advertisers the opportunity to buy space in a variety of publications through a packaged deal.

mailing list – A type of database containing names and addresses of present and or potential customers who can be reached through a direct-mail campaign.

major selling idea – The basis for the central theme or message idea in an advertising campaign.

makegood – The replacement of a spot missed due to a preemption or faulty transmission.

marginal analysis –A principle resource allocation that balances incremental revenues against incremental costs.

market segmentation – The process of dividing a market into distinct groups that have common needs and will respond similarly to a marketing action.

market specialist – A buyer who concentrates on just a few markets, thus developing expertise in terms of media usage habits and advertising rate fluctuations in these markets.

marketing – The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.

marketing channels – The set of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available to customers.

marketing mix – The controllable elements of a marketing program including product, price, promotion, and place.

marketing objectives – Goals to be accomplished by an organization’s overall marketing program such as sales, market share, or profitability.

marketing plan – A written document that describes the overall marketing strategy and programs developed for an organization, a particular product line, or a brand.

marketing public relations function (MPR) – Public relations activities designed to support marketing objectives and programs.

mass media – Nonpersonal channels of communication that allow a message to be sent to many individuals at one time.

materialism – A preoccupation with material things rather than intellectual or spiritual concerns.

media buying services – Independent companies that specialize in the buying of media, particularly radio and television time.

media objectives – The specific goals an advertiser has for the media portion of the advertising program.

media organizations – One of the four major participants in the integrated marketing communications process whose function is to provide information or entertainment to subscribes, viewers, or readers while offering marketers an environment for reaching audiences with print and broadcast messages.

media plan – A document consisting of objectives, strategies, and tactics for reaching a target audience through various media vehicles.

media planning – The series of decisions involved in the delivery of an advertising message to prospective purchasers and/or users of a product or service.

media service – An organization capable of the full range of media functions.

media strategies – Plans of action for achieving stated media objectives such as which media will be used for reaching a target audience, how the media budget will be allocated, and how advertisements will be scheduled.

media vehicle – The specific program, publication, or promotional piece used to carry an advertising message.

medium – Any vehicle used to deliver an advertising message.  Media types include television, radio, magazines, newspapers, transit, direct mail, etc.

message – A communication containing information or meaning that a source wants to convey to a receiver.

metered markets – Markets where ratings are drawn from a sample of TV homes in which a meter has been attached to the television set.  New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago are currently metered.

metro area – The central metropolitan core of a market, equivalent to the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

microeconomic trends – Patterns or developments in economic factors such as consumer income, savings, debt, and expenditure patterns.

middle break – Commercial break roughly halfway through a program.

minimum frequency – Minimum number of exposures thought necessary for an advertisement to be effective.

misredemption – The illegal redemption of coupons by persons who have not purchased the product.

missionary sales – A type of sales position where the emphasis is on performing supportive and services rather than generating or taking orders.

mnemonics – Basic cues such as symbols, rhymes, and associations that facilitate the learning and memory process.

mobile billboards – An out-of-home medium in which advertisements are able to transported to different locations (signs pained on automobiles, trailers pulling billboards, and the like).

monitor – A check of the appearance, time, and length or unit size of commercials in broadcast or ads in print.

motivation research – Qualitative research designed to probe the consumer’s subconscious and discover deeply rooted motives for purchasing a product.

motive – Something that compels or derives a consumer to take a particular action.

multiattribute attitude model – A model of attitudes that views an individual’s evaluation of an object as being a function of the beliefs that he or she has toward the object on various attributes and the importance of these attributes.

multimagazine deals – Arrangements whereby two or more publishers offer advertisers the opportunity to buy space in their magazines with one single media buy.

multiple buying influences – The idea that a number of different individuals may influence the purchase process for a product or service within an organization.

multiplexing – An arrangement where multiple channels are transmitted by one cable network.

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