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Glossary of Marketing, Advertising, Internet, and Promotion Terms—Part II

Click on the first letter of the word you want defined
N l O l P l Q l R l S l T l U l V l W l X l Y l Z

A through M on prior page 


nab code – A self-regulating set of rules concerning broadcast practices put forth by the National Association of Broadcasters and voluntarily accepted by code subscribers.

narrowcasting – The reaching of a very specialized market through programming aimed at particular target audiences. Cable television networks offer excellent opportunities for narrowcasting.

national advertisers – Companies that advertise their products or services on a nationwide basis or in most regions of the country.

national advertising – Advertising done by a company on a nationwide basis or in most regions of the country and targeted to the ultimate consumer market.

National Advertising Review Board (NARB) – A part of the National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. The NARB is the advertising industry’s primary self-regulatory body.

National Advertising Review Council (NARC) – An organization founded by the Council of Better Business Bureaus and various advertising industry groups to promote high standards of truth, accuracy, morality, and social responsibility in national advertising.

National Association of Attorneys General – An organization consisting of state attorneys general that is involved in the regulation of advertising and other business practices.

national spot – All nonnetwork advertising done by a national advertiser in local markets. 

negotiated commission – A method of compensating advertising agencies whereby the client and agency negotiate the commission structure rather than relying on the traditional 15 percent media commission.

network – In television or radio, a group of stations associated for the purposes of airing programs simultaneously.

network feed – The system of lines and/or microwave transmitters which carry a network signal to various regions and local stations.

new season – In television, “the broadcast year” which is ushered in during the Fall with new program introduction and new episodes of returning series. 

Nielsen – The A.C. Nielsen Company, a marketing/media research organization which measures national and local television viewing and reports raring estimates.

noise – Extraneous factors that create unplanned distortion or interference in the communication process.

noise levels – Advertising weight levels.

noncompensatory integration strategies – Types of decision rules used to evaluate alternatives that do not allow negative evaluation or performance on a particular attribute to be compensated for by positive evaluation or performance on some other attribute.

nonfranchise-building promotions – Sales promotion activity that are designed to accelerate the purchase decision process and generate an immediate increase in sales but do little or nothing to communicate information about a brand and contribute to its identity and image.

nonmeasured media – A term commonly used in the advertising industry to describe support media.

nonpersonal channels – Channels of communication that carry a message without involving interpersonal contact between sender and receiver. Nonpersonal channels are often referred to as mass media.

nonprice competition – A strategy of using factors other than price, such as advertising or product differentiation, as a basis for competition.

nontraditional media – A term commonly used in the advertising industry to describe support media.

NSI – Nielsen Station Index, local television report service of A.C. Nielsen.

NTI – Nielsen Television Index, national television report service of A.C. Nielsen.


objective and task method – A build-up approach to budget setting involving a three-step process: (1) determining objectives, (2) determining the strategies and tasks required to attain these objectives, and (3) estimating the costs associated with these strategies and tasks.

offensive spending – An advertising spending strategy designed to attract new consumers (such as current users of a rival brand) or to interfere with competitive activity.

off-network –syndication – Returns of network shows bought by individual stations.

on-air tests – Testing the effectiveness of television commercials by inserting ads into actual TV program in certain test markets.

one-sided message – Communications in which only positive attributes or benefits of a product or service are presented.

one-step approach – A direct-marketing strategy in which the medium is used directly to obtain an order (for example, television direct-response ads).

O&O – A local station owned and operated by a network. Federal statue limits the number of television O&O to five VHf and two UHF stations.

open rate structure – A rate charged by newspapers in which discounts are available based on frequency or bulk purchases of space.

operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) –A learning theory that views the probability of a behavior as being dependent on the outcomes or consequences associated with it.

orbit – A scheduling arrangement in which a station will rotate and advertisement among different program vehicles.

order taking – A personal selling responsibility in which the salesperson’s primary responsibility is taking the order.

OTO – One Time Only, a spot which is ordered in a particular time period for a particular day (or week) and which is not scheduled for the same time period in subsequent weeks of a flight.

out-of-home advertising – The variety of advertising forms including outdoor, transit, skywriting, and other media viewed outside the home.

outdoor – Display advertising (billboards, posters), located out-of-doors along highways, on rooftops and walls, at bus stops, etc.

outside posters – Outdoor transit posters appearing on buses, taxis, trains, subways, and trolley cars. 

overnights – Television rating estimates, available within a day of broadcast, drawn from households in metered markets.


package – a group of television or radio programs and commercial spots offered at a discount by a network or station.

PACT (Positioning Advertising Copy Testing) – A set of principles endorsed by 21 of the largest US ad agencies aimed at improving the research used in preparing and testing ads, providing a better creative product for clients, and controlling the cost of TV commercials.

panels – The unit of outdoor advertising.

participations – The situation when several advertisers buy commercial time or spots on network television.

pass along rate – An estimate of the number of readers of a magazine in addition to the original subscriber of purchaser.

pass along reader – An individual who reads a publication that was not purchased by some member of the same household.

pass along readership – The audience that results when the primary subscriber or purchaser of a magazine gives the publication to another person to read, or when the magazine is read in places such as waiting rooms in doctors’ offices, etc.

pattern advertising – Advertising that follow a basic global approach although themes, copy, and sometimes even visual elements may be adjusted.

payout plan – A budgeting plan that determines the investment value of the advertising and promotion appropriation.

penetration – The degree to which a medium or vehicle has achieved coverage of a particular target.

people meter – An electronic device that automatically records a household’s television viewing, including channels watched, number of minutes of viewing, and members of the household who are watching.

percentage charges – The markups charged by advertising agencies for services provided to clients.

percentage of projected future sales method – A variation of the percentage of sales method of budget allocation in which projected future sales of the product.

percentage of sales method – A budgeting method in which the advertising and/or promotions budget is set based on a percentage of sales of the product.

perception – The process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

perceptual map – A “map” of perceptions of the positions of brands or products as perceived by consumers.

peripheral route to persuasion – In the elaboration likelihood model, one of two routes to persuasion in which the receiver is viewed as lacking the ability or motivation to process information and is not likely to be engaging in detailed cognitive processing.

personal selling – Person-to-person communication in which the seller attempts to assist and/or persuade prospective buyers to purchase the company’s product or service or to act on an idea.

persuasion matrix – A communications planning model in which the stages of the response process (dependent variables) and the communications components (independent variables) are combined to demonstrate the likely effect that the independent variables will have on the dependent variables.

phased processing strategy – An information processing strategy in which more than one decision rule is applied during the purchase decision process.

PIB – Publishers Information Bureau, an organization that monitors and reports on advertising spending in major consumer magazines and Sunday supplement

piggyback – Back-to-back scheduling of two or more brand commercials in a single position for the same advertiser.

pilot – An episode of a proposed TV series

planograms – A planning configuration of products that expose a group of respondents to a portfolio consisting of both control and test print ads.

position – The location of a print ad on a page within a print vehicle. The position of a broadcast commercial can be adjacent to or within programming, and can be at different breaks within a show.

positioning – The art and science of fitting the product or service to one or more segments of the market in such a way as to set it meaningfully apart from competition.

positioning strategies – The strategies used in positioning a brand or product.

post analysis – The rating delivery recap conducted after a television schedule has run. Based on station affidavits and latest available rating books.

posttests – Ad effectiveness measure that are taken after the ad has appeared in the marketplace.

preemption – The cancellation of scheduled programming for replacement programming. Also, the cancellation of a scheduled spot by a station.

preferred position rate – A rate charged by newspapers that insures the advertiser the ad will appear in the position requested and/or in a specific section of the newspaper.

premium – An offer of an item of merchandise or service either free or at low price that is used as an extra incentive for purchasers.

preprinted inserts – Advertising distributed through newspapers that is not part of the newspaper itself, but is printed by the advertiser and then taken to the newspaper itself, but is printed by the advertiser and then taken to the newspaper to be inserted.

press release – Factual and interesting information released to the press.

pretests – Advertising effectiveness measures that are taken before the implementation of the advertising campaign.

price elasticity – The responsiveness of the market to changes in price.

price-off deal – A promotional strategy in which the consumer receives a reduction in the regular price of the brand.

primacy effect – A theory that the first information presented in the message will be the most likely to be remembered.

primary circulation – The number of copies of a magazine distributed to original subscribers.

primary demand advertising – Advertising designed to stimulate demand for the general product class or entire industry.

primetime – The time period Monday-Saturday 8:00-11:00 pm and Sunday 7:00-11:00 pm(ETZ) during which HUT Levels and audience ratings are highest.

problem detection – A creative research approach in which consumers familiar with a product (or service) are asked to generate an exhaustive list of problems encountered in its use.

problem recognition – The first stage in the consumer’s decision-making process in which the consumer perceives need and becomes motivated to satisfy it.

problem-solver stage – A stage of personal selling in which the seller obtains the participation of buyers in identifying their problems, translates these problems into needs, and then presents a selection from the supplier’s offerings that can solve those problems.

procreator stage – A stage of personal selling in which the seller defines the buyer’s problems or needs through active buyer-seller collaboration, thus creating a market offering tailored to the customer.

product differentiation – The process employed in making products appear different from others.

product manager – The person responsible for the planning, implementation, and control of the marketing program for an individual brand.

product placement – A form of advertising and promotion in which products are placed in television shows and/or movies to gain exposure.

product protection – Guarantee to separate ads or commercials of competitive brands.

product specific preplanning input – Specific studies provided to the creative department on the product or service, the target audience, or a combination of the two.

product symbolism – The meaning that a product or brand has to consumers.

professional advertising – Advertising targeted to professional groups.

program rating – The percentage of TV households in an area that are tuned to a program during a specific time period.

promotion – The coordination of all seller-initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to sell goods and services of to promote an idea.

promotional management – The process of coordinating the promotional mix elements.

promotional mix – The tools used to accomplish an organization’s communications objectives. The promotional mix includes advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, publicity/public relations, and personal selling.

promotional plan – The framework for developing, implementing, and controlling the organization’s communications program.

promotional products marketing – The advertising or promotional medium or method that uses promotional products, such as ad specialties, premiums, business gifts, awards, prizes, or commemoratives.

promotional pull strategy – A strategy in which advertising and promotion efforts are targeted at the ultimate consumers to encourage them to purchase the manufacture’s brand.

promotional push strategy – A strategy in which advertising and promotional efforts are targeted to the trade to attempt to get them to promote and sell the product to the ultimate consumer.

prospector stage – A selling stage in which activities include seeking out selected buyers who are perceived to have a need for the offering as well as the resources to buy it.

prospects – Those persons who may be prospective customers based on a need for the product or service.

Protestant ethic – A set of values that stress hard work and individual effort and initiative and view the accumulation of material possessions as evidence of success.

provider stage – A selling stage in which activities are limited to accepting orders for the supplier’s available offering and conveying it to the buyer.

psychoanalytic theory – An approach to the study of human motivations and behaviors pioneered by Sigmund Freud.

psychographics – Characteristics of an individual (or group of individuals), such as life style, attitudes and personality.

psychographic segmentation – Dividing the product on the basis or personality and/or lifestyles.

psychosocial consequences – Purchase decision consequences that are intangible, subjective, and personal.

public relations – The management function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or organization with the public interest, and executes a program to earn public understanding and acceptance.

public relations firm – An organization that develops and implements programs to manage a company’s publicity, image, and affairs with consumers and other relevant publics.

publicity – Communications regarding an organization, product, service, or idea that is not directly paid for or run under identified sponsorship.

puffery – Advertising or other sales presentations that praise the item to be sold using subjective opinions, superlatives, or exaggerations, vaguely and generally, stating no specific facts.

pulsing – A media scheduling method that combines flighting and continuous scheduling.

pupillometrics – An advertising effectiveness methodology designed to measure dilation and constriction of the pupils of the eye in response to stimuli.

purchase intention – The predisposition to buy a certain brand or product.

push money – Cash payments made directly to the retailers’ or wholesalers’ sales force to encourage them to promote and sell a manufacturer’s product.


qualified prospects – Those prospects that are able to make the buying decision.

qualitative audit – An audit of the advertising agency’s efforts in planning, developing, and implementing the client’s communications programs.

qualitative media effect – The positive or negative influence the medium may contribute to the message.

quintile analysis – The dividing of an audience reached by advertising into five equal groups. Each quintile can then be analyzed to determine average frequency among that particular group.


rate card – A published listing of the advertising costs and mechanical requirements for a given medium.

rate protection – Guarantee given to an advertiser by a medium against rate increases in that medium for a specified period of time.

ratings point – A measurement used to determine television viewing audiences in which one ratings point is the equivalent of 1 percent of all of the television households in a particular area tuned to a specific program.

rational appeal – Communications in which features and/or benefits are directly presented in a logical, rational method.

reach – The number of different audience members exposed at least once to a media vehicle (or vehicles ) in a given period.

reach curve – The graph of how reach builds over time. Reach curves differ by medium and by scheduling and combining of media.

readers per copy – A cost comparison figure used for magazines that estimates audience size based on pass-along readership.

readership – Total audience of a print vehicle.

readers per copy – The average number of readers for each copy of a magazine or newspaper.

recall tests – Advertising effectiveness tests designed to measure advertising recall.

receiver – The person or persons with whom the sender of a message shares thoughts or information.

recency effect – The theory that arguments presented at the end of the message are considered to be stronger and therefore are more likely to be remembered.

recognition method – An advertising effectiveness measure of print ads that allows the advertiser to assess the impact of an ad in a single issue of a magazine over time and/or across alternative magazines.

reference group – A group whose perspectives, values, or behavior is used by an individual as the basis for his or her judgments, opinions, and actions.

refutational appeal – A type of message in which both sides of the issue are presented in the communication, with arguments offered to refute the opposing viewpoint.

regional edition – A portion of a national magazine’s circulation that falls within a certain geographic area (metro area, state, group of states) that can be purchased separately from the total circulation. A premium (higher CPM) is usually charged for regional editions.

regional networks – A network that covers only a specific portion of the country. Regional network purchases are based in proportion to the percentage of the country receiving the message.

reinforcement – The rewards or favorable consequences associated with a particular response.

relationship marketing – An organization’s effort to develop a long-term, cost-effective link with individual customers for mutual benefit.

relative cost – The relationship between the price paid for advertising time or space and the size of the audience delivered; it is used to compare the prices of various media vehicles.

reminder advertising – Advertising designed to keep the name of the product or brand in the mind of the receiver.

remnant space – Unsold magazine advertising space, usually in regional or geographic editions of national magazines, sold at a discount.

repositioning – The changing of a product or brand’s positioning.

resellers – Intermediaries in the marketing channel such as wholesalers, distributors, and retailers.

response – The set of reactions the receiver has after seeing, hearing, or reading a message.

retail/local advertising – Advertising carried out by retailers and/or local merchants.

retail rates – Rates for local retail advertisers that are built upon different discount structures from rates for national advertisers.

retail trading zone – The market outside the city zone whose residents regularly trade with merchants within the city zone.

roadblock – A scheduling strategy in which spots are purchased for the same time period across several stations in a market. Such a schedule increases total audience reach.

ROI – budgeting method (return on investment) – A budgeting method in which advertising and promotions are considered investments, and thus measurements are made in an attempt to determine the returns achieved by these investments.

roll out – The marketing strategy in which a brand is introduced into a specific area, moving into other areas as the brand expands distribution and sales.

rolling boards – Advertising painted or mounted on cars, trucks, vans, trailers, etc., so the exposure can be mobile enough to be taken to specific target market areas.

ROS – Run of Station, a commercial announcement for which a particular time period is not requested.

run of paper (ROP) – A rate quoted by newspapers that allows the ad to appear on any page or in any position desired by the medium.


sales-oriented objectives – Budgeting objectives related to sales effects such as increasing sales volume.

sales promotion – Marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to the sales force, distributors, or the ultimate consumer and can stimulate immediate sales.

sales promotion agency – An organization that specializes in the planning and implementation of promotional programs such as contests, sweepstakes, sampling, premiums, and incentive offers for its clients.

sales promotion trap – A spiral that results when a number of competitors extensively use promotions. One firm uses sales promotions to differentiate its product or service and other competitors copy the strategy, resulting in no differential advantage and a loss of profit margins to all.

salient beliefs – Beliefs concerning specific attributes or consequences that are activated and form the basis of an attitude.

sampling – A variety of procedures whereby consumers are given some quantity of a product for no charge to induce trial.

satellite – A remote station which relays the TV signal of a parent station beyond its usual coverage area.

saturation – Simultaneous achievement of near maximal coverage with high levels of frequency within a certain medium or mix of media.

scatter – The scheduling strategy in which several different vehicles are bought within a time period to disperse the message flow and build reach.

scatter market – A period for purchasing television advertising time that runs throughout the TV season.

schedule – The list of media to be employed for a brand’s advertising campaign. Details would include information pertinent to planned activity.

schedules of reinforcement – The schedule by which a behavioral response is rewarded.

script – A written version of the commercial that provides a detailed description of its video and audio content.

second season – The period after January when unsuccessful network television programs are replaced or rescheduled and new programs are aired. In recent years, these schedule changes have been increasing to the point where as many are made prior to January as after; almost the term obsolete.

selective attention – A perceptual process in which consumers choose to attend to some stimuli and not others.

selective binding – A computerized production process that allows the creation of hundreds of copies of a magazine in one continuous sequence.

selective comprehensive – The perceptual process whereby consumers interpret information based on their own attitudes, beliefs, motives, and experiences.

selective demand advertising – Advertising that focuses on stimulating demand for a specific manufacturer’s product or brand.

selective exposure – A process whereby consumers choose whether or not to make themselves available to media and message information.

selective learning – The process whereby consumers seek information that supports the choice made and avoid information that fails to bolster the wisdom of a purchase decision.

selective perception – The perceptual process involving the filtering or screening of exposure, attention, comprehension, and retention.

selective retention – The perceptual process whereby consumers remember some information but not all.

selectivity – The ability of a medium to reach a specific target audience.

self-liquidating premiums – Premiums that require the consumer to pay some or all of the cost of the premium plus handling and mailing costs.

self-paced media – Media that viewers and/or readers can control their exposure time to, allowing them to process information at their own rate.

self-regulation – The practice by the advertising industry of regulating and controlling advertising to avoid interference by outside agencies such as the government.

semiotics – The study of the nature of meaning.

sensation – The immediate and direct response of the senses (taste, smell, sight, touch, and hearing) to a stimulus such as an advertisement, package, brand name, or point-of-purchase display.

shaping – The reinforcement of successive acts that lead to a desired behavior pattern or response.

share of audience – The percentage of all viewing households which are tuned to a particular station. In a three station market in which each station is of roughly equal strength, shares will be 33%.

share of market – The percentage of total sales for a particular product class which are attributed to a specific brand.

short rate – The additional cost incurred for newspaper of magazine space which has not earned a previously planned and billed discount rate.

showing – In outdoor advertising, the measure of intensity of audience exposure, expressed on a scale of 100 (100 = Full Showing). The number of panels needed for a full showing varies by market.

similarity – The supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of a message.

Simmons, W.R. – A research organization measuring audience characteristics of media, especially magazines, and providing product-usage data.

simulcast – To broadcast a program at the same time on a television station and a radio station, or on two radio stations (most often one AM and one FM).

single-source tracking – A research method designed to track the behaviors of consumers from the television set to the supermarket checkout counter.

situational determinants – Influences originating from the specific situation in which consumers are to use the product or brand.

skew – A concentration above the norm.

sleeper effect – A phenomenon in which the persuasiveness of a message increases over time.

slotting allowance – Fees that must be paid to retailers to provide a “slot” or position to accommodate a new product on the store shelves.

SMSA – Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, major geographical centers of population, usually smaller than the DMA, defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

social class – Relatively homogeneous division of society into which people are grouped based on similar lifestyles, values, norms, interests, and behaviors.

social style model – A model that suggests business persons’ “social class” will influence how they react on the job.

source – The sender—person, group, or organization of the message.

source bolsters – Favorable cognitive thoughts generated toward the source of a message.

source derogation’s – Negative thoughts generated about the source of a communication.

source power – The power of a source as a result of his or her ability to administer rewards and/or punishments to the receiver.

special – A single radio or television show which replaces regularly scheduled programming. Usually presented as a spectacular.

specialized marketing communication services – Organizations that provide marketing communication services in their areas of expertise including direct marketing, public relations, and sales promotion firms.

specialty advertising – An advertising, sales promotion, and motivational communications medium that employs useful articles of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser’s name, message, or logo.

spill-in – The amount of viewing within one broadcast market to stations originating in a neighboring market.

spill-out – Transmission of a television or radio signal beyond its own market area.

split runs – Two or more versions of a print ad are printed in alternate copies of a particular issue of a magazine.

split run test – An advertising, sales promotion, and motivational communications medium that employs useful article of merchandise imprinted with an advertiser’s name, message, or logo.

split 30s – 30-second TV spots in which the advertiser promotes two different products with two different messages during a 30-second commercial.

sponsorship – When the advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the program as well as the advertising that appears within it.

spot – A single announcement, or the period of time in which that announcement is scheduled.

spot advertising – Commercials shown on local television stations, with the negotiation and purchase of time being made directly from the individual stations.

spot TV – Television time offered by local stations as opposed to Network TV.

spread – A single print ad positioned on two facing pages of a publication.

SRDS – Standard Rate and Data Service, Inc. an organization which publishes rates, circulation data, and mechanical requirements for major advertising vehicles.

standard advertising unit (SAU) – A standard developed in the newspaper industry to make newspaper purchasing rates more comparable to other media that sell space and time in standard units.

standard broadcast billing month – The month beginning with the Monday on or immediately preceeding the first day of the calendar month and continuing until the final Sunday of the calendar month.

standard broadcast billing week – Monday through Sunday.

standard learning model – Progression by the consumers through a learn-feel-do hierarchical response.

station break – Time period in which broadcast reverts from the network feed to the local station to announce call letters and to broadcast local commercials.

station log – The official record of a station’s programming and commercial announcements throughout the broadcast day.

station reps – Individuals who act as sales representatives for a number of local stations and represent them in dealings with national advertisers.

storyboard – A series of drawings used to present the visual plan or layout of a proposed commercial.

strategic marketing plan – The planning framework for specific marketing activities.

strip – A television program that is aired on successive days during the same time period, e.g., talk shows, off-network shows. Also refers to buying commercials each day of telecast within this type of programming.

subcultures – Smaller groups within a culture that possess similar beliefs, values, norms, and patterns of behavior that differentiate them from the larger cultural mainstream.

subheads – Secondary headlines in a print ad.

subliminal perception – The ability of an individual to perceive a stimulus below the level of conscious awareness.

Sunday supplement – A local or nationally edited magazine included with the Sunday newspaper.

superagencies – Large external agencies that offer integrated marketing communications on a worldwide basis.

superstations – Independent local stations that send their signals via satellite to cable operators that, in turn, make them available to subscribers (WWOR, WPIX, WGN, WSBK, WTBS).

support advertising – A form of direct marketing in which the ad is designed to support other forms of advertising appearing in other media.

support argument – Consumers’ thoughts that support or affirm the claims being made by a message.

support media – Those media used to support or reinforce messages sent to target markets through other more “dominant” and/or more traditional media.

sweep periods – The times of year in which television audience measures are taken (February, May, July, and November).

sweepstakes – A promotion whereby consumers submit their names for consideration in the drawing or selection of prizes and winners are determined purely by chance. Sweepstakes cannot require a proof of purchases as a condition for entry.

syndicated programs – Shows sold or distributed to local stations.


target audience – That population segment identified as comprising the prime prospects for product purchase. Target audience is of critical importance in developing media strategies and directing advertising support.

target marketing – The process of identifying the specific needs of segments, selecting one or more of these segments as a target, and developing marketing programs directed to each.

team approach – A method of measuring the effectiveness of public relations programs whereby evaluators are actually involved in the campaign.

teaser advertising – An ad designed to create curiosity and build excitement and interest in a product or brand without showing it.

telemarketing – Selling products and services by using the telephone to contact prospective customers.

tele-media – The use of telephone and voice information services (800, 900, 976 numbers) to market, advertise, promote, entertain, and inform.

television network – The provider of news and programming to a series of affiliated local television stations.

terminal posters – Floor displays, island showcases, electronic signs, and other forms of advertisements that appear in train or subway stations, airline terminals, etc.

test market – A certain marketing area (usually a DMA or SMSA) chosen to test a new product or a new advertisement.

testing bias – A bias that occurs in advertising effectiveness measures because respondents know they are being tested and thus alter their responses.

test of comprehension and reaction – Advertising effectiveness test that are designed to assess whether the ad conveyed the desired meaning and is not reacted to negatively.

TGI – Target Group Index, syndicated data concerning product usage and media habits for the major demographic sub-populations. Data are gathered and published by the Axiom Market Research Bureau, Inc.

theater testing – An advertising effectiveness pretest in which consumers view ads in a theater setting and evaluate these ads on a variety of dimensions.

top-down approaches – Budgeting approaches in which the budgetary amount is established at the executive level and monies are passes down to the various departments.

total audience (television) – The total number of homes viewing any five-minute part of television program.

total audience/readership – A combination of the total number of primary and pass-along readers multiplied by their circulation of an average issue of a magazine.

tracking studies – Advertising effectiveness measures designed to assess the effects o advertising on awareness, recall, interest, and attitudes toward the ad as well as purchase intentions.

trade advertising – Advertising targeted to wholesalers and retailers.

trade magazines – Magazines edited specifically to reach members of occupational groups, with advertising correspondingly directed to these groups.

trademark – An identifying name, symbol, or other device that gives a company the legal and exclusive rights to use.

trade-oriented sales promotion – A sales promotion designed to motivate distributors and retailers to carry a product and make an extra effort to promote or “push” it to their customers.

trade regulation rules (TRRs) – Industrywide rules that define unfair practices before they occur. Used by the Federal Trade Commission to regulate advertising and promotion.

trade show – A type of exhibition of forum where manufacturers can display their products to current as well as prospective buyers.

transformational advertising – An ad that associates the experience of using the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics that would not typically be associated with the brand experience to the same degree without exposure to the advertisement.

transit advertising – Poster advertisements appearing on or inside buses, subways, taxies, trains, etc.

translate – To schedule the equivalent weight of a national media plan in a given market, or to project national activity from a local market plan.

trustworthiness – The honesty, integrity, and believability of the source of communication.

two-sided message – A message in which both good and bad points about a product or claim are presented.

two-step approach – A direct-marketing strategy in which the first effort is designed to screen or qualify potential buyers, while the second effort has the responsibility of generating the response.


UHF – Ultra High Frequency, the TV broadcast band between channels 14-83.

undifferentiated marketing – A strategy in which market segment difference are ignored and one product or service is offered to the entire market.

unduplicated reach – The number or persons reached once with a media exposure.

unique selling proposition – An advertising strategy that focuses on a product or service attribute that is distinctive to a particular brand and offers an important benefit to the customer.

up-front market – A buying period that takes place prior to the upcoming television season when the networks sell a large part of their commercial time.

upscale – A term used to define individuals on the upper end of the socio-economic ladder, i.e., better educated, higher income.


values and lifestyles program (VALS) – Stanford Research Institute’s method for applying lifestyle segmentation.

vehicle – Any particular advertising medium, e.g., a magazine, a television program or radio station.

vehicle option source effect – The differential impact the advertising exposure will have on the same audience member if the exposure occurs in one media option rather than another.

vertical cooperative advertising – A cooperative arrangement under which a manufacturer pays for a portion of the advertising a retailer runs to promote the manufacturer’s product and its availability in the retailer’s place of business.

vertical rotation – The distribution of broadcast spots at different times within the same day.

VHF – Very High Frequency, the TV broadcast band between Channels 2-13.

video advertising – Advertisements appearing in movie theaters and on videotapes.

video news release – News stories produced by publicists so that television stations may air them as news.

voice-over – Action on the screen in a commercial that is narrated or described by a narrator who is not visible.

VPS – Viewers-Per-Set, the number of viewing individuals within a demographic group, divided by the number of television sets in use. Most often expressed as viewers per 100 viewing households.


want – A felt need shaped by a person’s knowledge, culture, and personality.

waste circulation – Audience readership (or viewer/listenerhip) outside a specific demographic or geographic target.

waste coverage – A situation where the coverage of the media exceeds the target audience.

Wheeler-Lea Amendment – An act of Congress passed in 1938 that amended section 5 of the FTC Act to read that unfair methods of competition in commerce and unfair or deceptive acts or practices in commerce are declared unlawful.

word-of-mouth communications – Social channels of communication such as friends, neighbors, associates, coworkers, or family members.


Yellow Pages advertising – Advertisements that appear in the various Yellow Pages—type phone directories.


zapping – The use of a remote control device to change channels and switch away from commercials.

zero-based communications planning – An approach to planning the integrated marketing communications program that involves determining what tasks need to be done and that marketing communication functions should be used to accomplish them and to what extent.

zipping – Fast-forwarding through commercial during the playback of a program previously recorded on a VCR.

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